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Finally, we demonstrate that C dating can be used in wildlife forensics to determine the age of confiscated animal tissues, which in many cases is equivalent to the date of death.

For many animal parts, such as ivory and rhino horn, age often determines whether trade of the item is legally permitted. The two curves, NH3 Levin and SH1, differ significantly before ∼1970 owing to bomb testing locations and atmospheric circulation, and subtle differences of 4–5‰ persist after 1970.

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Tissues formed after 1955 are dated to within 0.3–1.3 y of formation, depending on the tissue type, whereas tissues older than C dating of tissues has applications to stable isotope (paleo)ecology and wildlife forensics.

We use data from 41 additional samples to determine growth rates of tusks, molars, and hair, which improve interpretations of serial stable isotope data for (paleo)ecological studies.

Mastodon tusks show nonlinear growth rates based on measurements of annual incremental thicknesses and lengths over ∼30 y (20, 21).

Using the tusk lengths and growth rates for R37 and Misha, we calculate the time represented in the tusks to be 28.0 and 14.8 y, respectively (Table 1).

Tissues formed during the steeper parts of the bomb-curve tend to have residuals less than 2 y (Fig. The current slope of the bomb-curve is shallower than during the interval from 1955 to C value of 0.9749 ± 0.0023 (this and all subsequent SDs are 2σ), which clearly indicates it formed before 1955.

Nearly 70% of the blue monkey’s diet is fruit and leaves, so significant dietary contribution from older plant material (more than several years old) is unlikely (17).Growth rates were determined in four plates (2, 4, 7, and 9) in sample TE-95 and two plates (7 and 9) in R37’s m3.Growth rates from both molars range from 1.39 ± 0.27 to 1.63 ± 0.14 cm/y (Table 1 and Fig.C ages from elephant tusks, molar plates, and tail hair and hippo canines to calculate tissue growth rates (Table 1).A schematic of the general structure of tusks, molars, and canines is shown in Fig. The period of growth for some canines and both tusks continued beyond 1997, when Assuming an age at death of 53 ± 5 y for R37 based on molar wear (18, 19), the R37 tusk represents growth from 25 to 53 y of age, whereas Misha’s tusk represents growth from 13 to 28 y of age.Maximum accuracy with respect to the known age is achieved by using tissues that undergo little or no turnover.

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