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Not everything over there is fully functional yet, and the internal links still point to this blog, and will for the indefinite future.

So all the old material will be left here for archival purposes, with comments turned off.

The overall length is 10.1 inches, and the finish is black paint. The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel. 25 shows a B&C 10 inch monkey wrench with wooden handle inserts, stamped with the B&C trademark logo on the upper (fixed) jaw, with "Bemis & Call Co." and "Springfield, Mass. The company was a maker of adjustable wrenches, pliers, and possibly other tools, and their products were sold under the Bergman, "Queen City", and "Blue Bird" brands. The overall length is 7.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with traces of nickel plating. The sturdy steel box measures 11.5 long by 5.2 wide by 2.0 high. 31 shows a 1/2-hex drive Bethlehem ratchet from the Model D socket set, marked with "Bethlehem Spark Plug Co." and "Bethlehem PA" forged into the shank, with "Drop Forged Steel" and "Made in USA" forged into the reverse.

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By 1922 the company was offering a specialty tool for straightening connecting rods. 6 shows the Billings version of the "Allen Friction Wrench" 1/2-drive ratchet, acquired as part of a "Ford Special" socket set. Plierench Corp'n" and "Chicago, Ill." on the front plate. Ayer pressed-steel sockets were interchangeable with those supplied by the Frank Mossberg Company, the leading maker of pressed-steel socket sets. As is frequently the case with Bonney production, the forgings are marked with Bonney date codes, in this case a forged-in code "JR" near the handle (see right middle inset). The Beckley-Ralston Company was a distributor of automobile accessories and equipment, founded in 1897 and operating initially in Chicago, Illinois.

The shank is marked with "The Billings & Spencer Co. CT." forged into one side, with "Allen Friction Wrench" and the B-Triangle logo forged into the reverse, along with a "Pat Aug 15 1911" patent notice. The markings also include "Eifel Geared Plier" on the top line, with a "Pats. The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is nickel plating. Ayer sockets were also compatible with "Ray" brand sockets from the Packer Auto Specialty Company, another Chicago-area maker of socket sets. In addition to its wholesale distribution operations, the company was also a mail-order dealer and sometimes operated as a manufacturer.

On May 17, 1887 American Saw filed a trademark application for "Alligator" as applied to wrenches, with the first use date given as January 17, 1878. 10 shows an Arrow Tool 10 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "Arrow Tool Company, Inc." and Buffalo, N. The distinctive forged-handle model 4270 ratchet was produced by S-K from the late 1930s through mid 1940s. In 1928 Bemis & Call acquired the rights to the wrench designs of the Coes Wrench Company, a well-known maker of adjustable wrenches operating in Worcester, Massachusetts.

The trademark was issued as #14,524 on June 21, 1887. The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint. The sockets in the set all have the distinctive knurled base and tapered upper walls of the S-K 401xx model series. In 1939 B&C was acquired by Billings & Spencer, which continued production of the B&C (and Coes) wrench models for some years thereafter.

The upper inset shows a profile view of the wrench. The wrench is also stamped with "Fulton" and "AD" on the lower jaw, indicating that it was made as contract production for Sears Roebuck. A." forged into the shank, with "Queen City" and "Drop Forged Steel" forged into the reverse. Although not marked with a patent notice, these pliers resemble the design described in patent #1,775,270, filed by J. In addition, the Model A set (the small box at the back center) provides seven 3/8-hex drive sockets, with sizes ranging from 9/32 up to 1/2.

Note the details of the jaw construction, with the milled slot in the jaw running in the keyed opening. 23 shows a B&C 10 inch S-shaped adjustable wrench, marked with the nominal size "10 In" forged into the handle, with "B&C" forged into the reverse (see lower inset). 80 8 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "B&C" forged into the shank, with "8 IN" and "No 80" forged into the reverse. The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the maximum opening approximately 2 inches. The Bergman Tool Manufacturing Company was founded in Buffalo, New York during the early part of the 20th century. The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the maximum opening is 0.8 inches. The set as acquired was reasonably complete, but is missing one of the extensions and the 15/32 socket.

One of the company's earliest products was a safety set screw using an internal hex socket.

Conventional set screws for machine tool accessories used a square head that projected well above the tooling, leading to the possibility of a worker's clothing being snagged by the screw head, resulting in a gruesome accident. The patent describes a method of cold-forming a screw head around a hexagonal die.

Interestingly, Billings also produced versions of the friction ratchet marked with its B-Triangle logo and offered them in early Billings pressed-steel socket sets, with the ratchets still referred to as "Allen" ratchets. The overall length is 8.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel with a black oxide coating.

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