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That one study, confined to Christians in Kenya, compared men belonging to churches that encouraged circumcision with those that discouraged it.
The circumcised men were more likely to be married and to have more than one wife, less likely to have ever been with a sex worker, or with more than three sex workers.
(Equal proportions of both groups, 10-11%, had been with one or two sex workers.) These factors could well account for the difference. The authors maintain that "because participants did not know their HIV-1 status at the time of our visit, bias from this source would seem unlikely." But many would know their HIV-1 status because of AIDS symptoms. There are thus unknown ways in which men might non-randomly "include themselves out".
Only seven of the 53 HIV infections occurred among insertive partners; the studys model indicated that five of these infections could have been avoided if the men had been circumcised.
[No figure for how many of the seven HIV infections were among circumcised insertive men.
So circumcising insertive men could readily increase HIV transmission to their partners.
Yet already this study is being touted as a reason for gay men to get circumcised.] Studies that claim to find a correlation between intactness and HIV transmission are not uncommonly misreported in a way that plays up the "protective effect".But we cannot, lest we lose the very respect that tempted us in the first place." - Stephen Jay Gould Bully for Brontosaurus, pp 429-30 (But some, it seems, are willing to take that risk.) Bailey - no protection to men in Kenya Connelly - no protection to black South Africans Auvert - no protection to young South Africans Gust - no protection to gay men Grulich - no protection to insertive Australian gay men (though it has been reported as if there is) Doerner - no protection to insertive gay men in Britain Jozkowski - no protection to US gay men Jameson - no protection to men who have sex with men Millett - no protection to US Black and Latino men who have unprotected insertive sex with men Mc Daid - no protection to Scottish men who have sex with men Wawer - no protection (and maybe increased risk) to women Turner - no protection to women Baeten - no protection to women Chao - greater risk to women Thomas - no protection in a high-risk population Shaffer - no protection by traditional circumcision Mor - no protection to men (weaselly-worded and data-mined to look as if there is) Thornton - no protection to men who have sex with men in London Moiti - circumcised youth at greater risk in Uganda Brewer - circumcised youth at greater risk in Mozambique Darby - no benefit in Australia Rodriguez-Diaz - circumcised men at greater risk in Puerto Rico Tobian - increased risk to women Two Cochrane Reviews Between Correlation and Recommendation A Vaccine? A Solution Looking For A Problem Ethics the Role of the Mucosa "Dry Sex" Delayed washing after sex Alcohol Female Genital Cutting Sexual Selection Wife Inheritance Heterosexual transmission - Europe vs the United States A voice of sanity from UNAIDS A voice of sanity from the Terrence Higgins Trust A UK survey of gay men that found more circumcised men with HIV The hazards of unblinded trials Other studies that show no correlation or a negative correlation between intactness and HIV/AIDS It is not, of course, up to the media to decide what is good or bad science.The media was reporting what it heard from scientists [about cold fusion].Factors like that might selectively influence their behaviour, putting them at less risk.] Templeton was quick to note, however, Thats only 9 percent of all HIV infections overall that can be attributed to being uncircumcised, not enough to advocate throwing out condoms or advocating widespread circumcision.Indeed, the studys model projected [No studies have been done of insertive-to-receptive transmission, cut vs intact, but it seems likely the keratinised circumcised penis is more likely to tear the receptive anus or rectum, and there is much anecdotal evidence - and visual evidence from US vs European gay porn - that cut men are rougher, because their fewer nerve-endings need more stimulation.(The Roman senator Cato was in the habit of ending every speech on any subject with those words - it helped that "must be destroyed" was a single splendid Latin word, "delenda".Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating